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    « What Is An "Estate Plan" Anyway? | Main | What Executors and Personal Representatives Need to Know About Basis Reporting »

    2017 - Estate and Gift Tax Planning Considerations

    There are a number of planning techniques that individuals should consider now that the first of the year is behind us, to take advantage of estate and gift tax savings opportunities.  


    Gifts to Individuals

    Individuals may limit the growth of their taxable estates by making annual lifetime gifts. The 2016 limit on such gifts was $14,000 per donee and this limit will remain for 2017. Married couples may gift up to $28,000 to each donee in 2017, if each spouse gives the limit individually or if the donors agree to split joint gifts for tax purposes.  It is important to remember that a donor is not limited to a certain number of annual exclusion gifts every year.  By making annual gifts to multiple beneficiaries, individuals may transfer significant wealth over time.  The gift is considered to be made on the date the donee receives the gift.  However, in the case of checks, the donee must cash the check before the end of the year. Since the gift tax annual exclusion is based on a calendar year, individuals may wish to make 2017 gifts in early January.

    Individuals interested in creating or adding to 529 Plan accounts for children or grandchildren should consider front-loading the accounts with five years’ worth of annual exclusion gifts. 

    Individuals wishing to pay a beneficiary’s medical or educational expenses should make payments directly to the institution, not to the individual.  If the payments are made this way, they will not be counted against the donor’s annual or lifetime gifting limits, so the donor can do both. 

    The federal estate, gift and generation-skipping transfer (GST) tax lifetime exemptions are each $5 million per individual ($10 million per married couple), increased for inflation. After adjusting for inflation, the exclusion amount for deaths in 2016 was $5.45 million and for 2017, the tax-free amount will be $5.49 million per person.

    The lifetime exclusion provides significant opportunities for lifetime gifting beyond the annual exclusion, educational and medical care gifts outlined above. Lifetime gifting is an effective strategy for the tax-efficient transfer of wealth because gifts remove future appreciation on transferred assets from an individual’s taxable estate.  In states like Massachusetts where there is an estate tax, but not a gift tax, individuals can reduce their state-level estate taxes if they transfer assets through gifts instead of relying on testamentary transfers.

    Although the current federal estate and gift tax laws were enacted with the goal of providing permanence to the federal transfer tax laws, it is possible that changes could be on the horizon. President-elect Trump is in favor of eliminating the estate tax altogether and reducing the “step-up basis” that dramatically reduces capital gains tax bills heirs pay after inheriting appreciated assets.  Although the likelihood of these changes being enacted is uncertain; they are worth keeping in mind for the coming year. It is important to note that Massachusetts has its own estate tax system that may or may not be affected by any change to the federal system.

    Gifts to Charities

    Gifts made to charities enjoy the dual benefits of reducing estate tax exposure and yielding current income tax deductions.  Such transfers must have been made on or before December 31, 2016 in order for donors to reap the tax benefit in 2017, when 2016 tax returns are filed and income tax is due to be paid.  It is important that donations were actually delivered to the charity before December 31, 2016, as the deduction is recognized on the date the charity receives the gift, not the date the check was written. The tax benefits of charitable gifting can be enhanced by gifting appreciated assets. By donating appreciated assets, the donor avoids capital gains tax that would have been realized upon a sale of the property.  The charity can sell the property and benefit from its value without paying this tax. However, if a donor sells the asset and then donates the proceeds to charity, the donor would be subject to the capital gains tax on the sale. 

    There are certain charitable giving techniques by which individuals can make charitable donations and obtain a charitable deduction, but retain an interest in the property for life or a certain term.  Depending on the individual’s goals, these can be structured in many different ways.

    Gifts of Family Business Interests

    On August 2, 2016, the IRS issued proposed regulations under Internal Revenue Code section 2704, designed to eliminate the use of valuation discounts in connection with gifting of family business interests.  If enacted, the regulations will increase the tax values of gifted assets and reduce some of the benefits associated with transferring these types of interests.  Due to the result of the recent election, there is uncertainty, but the regulations may become final and effective following a public comment period and a public hearing, which was held December 1, 2016.  There is a brief window of opportunity before the changes are scheduled to go into effect.  We urge those who are considering making significant gifts to family members to contact us as soon as possible to discuss these issues.  It is critical to take immediate action to implement planning techniques that take advantage of valuation discounts while they remain available. 

    Review of Estate Planning Documents

    It is advisable for individuals to review Wills, Trusts and other estate planning documents periodically. The end or beginning of each year is a good time for this.  When reviewing estate plans, individuals should consider these questions:  

    1.      Do the provisions still accomplish your goals?

    2.      Have your documents been updated to take advantage of changes to tax laws?
    3.      Do your documents contain provisions that provide asset protection to your children, grandchildren and other loved ones? 
    4.      Are the fiduciaries named (Personal Representative/Executor, Trustee, Power of Attorney/Agent-in-Fact, Health Care Agent) still appropriate? 
    5.      Are your Durable Power of Attorney and Living Will on file with family members and health care providers?
    6.      Have estate planning concepts, funeral arrangements and decisions on anatomical gifts been discussed with family? 
    7.      Are your life insurance policy and retirement plan beneficiary designations still appropriate and in line with your overall estate plan? 
    8.      Are bank accounts and other assets titled in line with your overall estate plan?
    9.      For business owners, are buy-sell agreements and the related valuations and life insurance policies up to date? 

    Please contact us if you would like to discuss any of these matters.


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